Gender Disparities in Dietary and Addiction-Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: Insights from Karachi

Authors

  • Sulhera Khan Jinnah Post Graduate Medical College (JPMC), Karachi, Pakistan
  • Shabnam Naveed Jinnah Post Graduate Medical College (JPMC), Karachi, Pakistan
  • Zeeshan Ali Jinnah Post Graduate Medical College (JPMC), Karachi, Pakistan
  • Wajeeha Batool Jinnah Post Graduate Medical College (JPMC), Karachi, Pakistan
  • Syed Masroor Ahmed Jinnah Post Graduate Medical College (JPMC), Karachi, Pakistan
  • Marium Fatima Jinnah Post Graduate Medical College (JPMC), Karachi, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47144/phj.v57i1.2498

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the dietary and addictive risk factors associated with hypertension and assess their gender-specific patterns.

Methodology: Conducted at the Outpatient Department of Medicine, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from July to December 2022, this descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled diagnosed hypertensive patients with a history of elevated blood pressure lasting more than six months, using a nonpurposive convenient sampling technique. Detailed histories of addictive and dietary risk factors were obtained, and blood pressure was measured. Dietary risk factors included excessive salt and fat intake, along with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids. Addictive risk factors assessed included tobacco and areca nut addiction.

Results: Of the 960 patients included, 588 (61.2%) were male, and 372 (38.8%) were female. Males exhibited poorer hypertension control (42.0%) compared to females (33.7%). The most prevalent dietary risk factor was excessive fat intake (76.7%), followed by excessive salt intake (66.7%). Smoking was reported in 66 (11.2%) males and 4 (1.0%) females, while areca nut addiction was observed in 51 (8.5%) males and 15 (4.0%) females.

Conclusion: Our findings underscored a significant association between male gender and inadequate hypertension control, coupled with a higher prevalence of dietary and addiction-related risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of targeted interventions aimed at mitigating these modifiable risk factors, particularly among males, to reduce the burden of hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.

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Published

2024-03-30

How to Cite

1.
Khan S, Naveed S, Ali Z, Batool W, Ahmed SM, Fatima M. Gender Disparities in Dietary and Addiction-Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: Insights from Karachi. Pak Heart J [Internet]. 2024Mar.30 [cited 2024Jun.16];57(1):57-62. Available from: https://pakheartjournal.com/index.php/pk/article/view/2498

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Original Article