Tables & Figures

Tables and graphs should be simple. Give Roman numerals in the order of their mention in the text. Provide a brief title for each. They should have a title and be numbered consecutively in the order they are mentioned in the text. Abbreviations should be defined in a double-spaced footnote at the end of the table. If any material in a table or a table itself has been taken from previously copyrighted material, a double spaced footnote must give full credit to the original source and permission of the author and publisher must be obtained. Send letters of permission to the Editor with the manuscript. Figures should be professionally drawn. Free hand lettering is unacceptable. Illustration can be photographed (Black and White glossy prints) and numbered and scanned for softcopy. If photographs of persons are to be used, either take permission from the person or make the picture unidentifiable. Black and White images (photographs) should be supplied as TIFF, JPEG, BMP, PSD and CDR files, to a minimum of 300 dpi.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

  • Number tables in the order of their find it citation in the text. Each table should be cited in the text in Arabic numerals.
  • Titles should be brief and a short or abbreviated heading for each column should be given. Explanatory matter should be placed in footnotes and not in the heading.
  • Abbreviations in each table should be explained in footnotes.
  • The data presented in a table should not be repeated in the text or figure.

Figures and Graphs

  • For graphics, a digital picture of 300 dpi or higher resolution in TIFF, EPS, and JPEG format should be submitted.
  • Figures should be in Arabic numerals, consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text, if there is more than 1 figure. Each figure should be cited in the text.
  • Each figure/illustration should be provided with a suitable legend that includes enough information to permit its interpretation without reference to the text.
  • All photomicrographs should indicate the magnification of the prints.
  • When symbols, arrows, numbers or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, each one should be explained clearly in the legend.

Figure captions: Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.