CARDIAC EVALUATION IN NEWBORNS: AN ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY BASED STUDY
Objective: To evaluate the cardiac status of newborns in terms of structural and functional heart diseases.
Methodology: This descriptive study was conducted at Paediatric Cardiology Department of “The Children’s Hospital and The Institute of Child Health”, Multan, Pakistan, from January 2017 to December 2019. Neonates aged 0-28 days and referred for echocardiographic evaluation were enrolled. Diagnostic findings were confirmed with the assistance of echocardiography. We were focused on analyzing total number and types of heart diseases along with gender distribution during the study period.
Results: During the study period, a total of 2729 newborns were evaluated. We noted 1523 (55.8%) newborns as structurally and functionally normal, 866 (31.7%) had congenital heart disease, 69 (2.5%) duct dependent lesions, 248 (9.1%) persistent pulmonary hypertension and 23 (0.8%) left ventricular (LV) dysfunction but with structurally normal heart. Newborns with LV dysfunction might have hypoxic myocardial damage, metabolic derangements or acute myocarditis. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) followed by Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) and Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) were the most frequent types of acyanotic CHD observed in 248 (28.2%), 171 (19.7%) and 100 (11.5%) neonates respectively while Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) was the most common type of cyanotic CHD 74 (8.5%).
Conclusion: VSD followed by PDA, ASD and TOF were the most common types of CHD among neonates. Diagnosis of congenital heart defects in the early age is pointing towards improvement in healthcare facilities.