ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS OF PAKISTANI ADULTS WITH NORMAL ECHOCARDIOGRAM
Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the ranges of normal 2D and Doppler echocardiographic parameters in Pakistani population.
Methodology: In this cross-sectional study a total of 108 adults with normal echocardiogram were included. Comprehensive transthoracic echocardiogram was done and right and left sided chambers and mitral inflow velocities were measured. Normal ranges were computed as mean ± 2×SD (standard deviation) and normal ranges were compared with the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) recommended normal ranges.
Results: A total of 108 healthy individuals were included in this study, a majority, 64.8% (70) were male and mean age was 32.48 ± 7.7 years with 58.3% (63) ≤ 32 years of age. Local normal reference ranges for most of the parameters are relatively narrower than the ASE reference ranges. Both the minimum and maximum reference values for most of the parameters are smaller in our population as compared to the ASE reference ranges. When comparing mitral inflow velocities, E wave in our population has higher velocities and small deceleration time while A wave has lower velocities than in the western population. Local normal reference range for the LVEF was observed to be mostly similar to the ASE reference ranges for both genders.
Conclusion: Comparing our results with internationally recognized ASE recommended values, it becomes evident that our population especially males have small LV dimensions and volumes. LV dimensions are important when decisions are taken about surgeries in valvular heart diseases like aortic regurgitation and mitral regurgitation.
When an article is accepted for publication in the print format, the author will be required to transfer exclusive copyright to the PHJ and retain the rights to use and share their published article with others. However, re-submission of the full article or any part for publication by a third party would require prior permission of the PHJ.
Online publication will allow the author to retain the copyright and share the article under the agreement described in the licensing rights with creative commons, with appropriate attribution to PHJ. Creative Commons attribution license CC BY 4.0 is applied to articles published in PHJ https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/